Debunking the Globe: An Exploration of the Flat Earth Theory

Debunking the Globe: An Exploration of the Flat Earth Theory

Rapper B.o.B. (Bobby Ray Simmons Jr.) indeed gained attention in 2016 for publicly expressing his belief in the flat Earth theory. He shared his views through a series of tweets and even released a song called "Flatline," which aimed to promote his beliefs and challenge the scientific consensus on the Earth's shape.
The Flat Earth theory has been a subject of debate for centuries. While the scientific community mostly supports the idea that the Earth is an oblate spheroid, there are those who still argue that the Earth is flat. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the various pieces of evidence and arguments put forth by Flat Earth proponents, and explore the reasons why they believe the Earth is not a sphere. It is important to approach this topic with an open mind and a critical perspective, examining the evidence presented with a discerning eye.
The Flat Earth Theory describes the earth like the picture below, showing a very close and equal sized sun and moon the revolves around the north pole.
1. The Sun and Moon: Flat Earth proponents argue that the Sun and Moon are the same size and much closer to the Earth than mainstream science suggests. They believe that both celestial bodies move in circular paths above the flat Earth, casting their light onto the surface. This argument is used to explain why the Sun and Moon appear to be the same size in the sky.
2. The Unchanging Face of the Moon: Another argument put forth by Flat Earth believers is that we only ever see one side of the Moon, which they claim is evidence that the Earth is flat. They argue that if the Earth were a sphere, we should be able to observe different sides of the Moon as it orbits our planet.
3. The Behavior of Asteroids: Flat Earth theorists often question the behavior of asteroids, wondering why they orbit the Sun instead of being pulled into it by gravity. They suggest that the fact that asteroids do not fall into the Sun is evidence that gravity is not a real force.
4. Density vs. Gravity: Some Flat Earth proponents argue that density, rather than gravity, is responsible for the behavior of objects falling towards the Earth. They believe that objects fall because they are denser than the air surrounding them, not because of any inherent force pulling them towards the Earth's surface.
5. The Horizon and Curvature: One of the main arguments used by Flat Earth proponents is the perceived lack of curvature when observing the Earth's horizon. They claim that if the Earth were a sphere, the curvature should be visible and cause objects to disappear from view as they move away from the observer.
6. Airplane Flight Paths: Flat Earth believers often point to airplane flight paths as evidence of a flat Earth. They argue that the routes taken by airplanes between distant locations make more sense on a flat Earth map than on a spherical Earth.
7. Lack of North-to-South Circumnavigation: Flat Earth proponents point to the fact that there are no recorded instances of airplanes or ships circumnavigating the Earth from North to South, only East to West. They argue that this is because the Earth is flat, and such a journey would be impossible.
8. The Antarctic Treaty and Restricted Access: Some Flat Earth believers argue that the Antarctic Treaty, which prevents territorial claims and military activity in Antarctica, is evidence of a global conspiracy to hide the true shape of the Earth. They claim that the treaty prevents independent exploration of the continent, which they believe is actually an ice wall surrounding the flat Earth.
9. The United Nations Logo: Flat Earth proponents often point to the United Nations logo as evidence of a flat Earth. The logo features a map projection known as the azimuthal equidistant projection, which shows the Earth as a flat disc with the North Pole at the center. Flat Earth believers argue that this is an admission of the true shape of the Earth by the global organization.
10. Water Finds Its Level: Flat Earth proponents often argue that water always finds its level, meaning that it remains flat when undisturbed. They use this argument to suggest that the Earth's large bodies of water, such as oceans, should be flat rather than curved.
11. Crepuscular Rays: Some Flat Earth believers argue that crepuscular rays, the rays of sunlight that appear to radiate from the point where the sun is located in the sky, are evidence of a flat Earth and a close, local sun. They assert that if the sun were 93 million miles away, the rays should be parallel.
12. No Observable Curvature on Earth's Surface: Flat Earth proponents often claim that there is no observable curvature on the Earth's surface, even from high altitudes such as airplane flights or mountain summits. They argue that if the Earth were truly spherical, the curvature should be visible.
13. The Bedford Level Experiment: The Bedford Level Experiment, conducted in the 19th century by Samuel Rowbotham, is often cited by Flat Earth proponents as evidence for a flat Earth. Rowbotham observed that a boat traveling along a straight six-mile stretch of a canal did not disappear from view as it should have if the Earth were curved.
14. The Coriolis Effect and Projectile Motion: Some Flat Earth believers argue that the Coriolis effect, which causes the apparent deflection of moving objects due to the Earth's rotation, should not exist if the Earth were a sphere. They assert that projectiles should travel in a straight line, unaffected by the Earth's rotation.
15. The Lack of Perceived Motion: Flat Earth proponents often claim that the lack of perceived motion on Earth's surface is evidence that the Earth is not rotating. They argue that if the Earth were rotating at over 1,000 miles per hour (at the equator), we should be able to feel this motion.
16. The Van Allen Radiation Belts: Some Flat Earth believers argue that the Van Allen radiation belts, which are regions of intense radiation surrounding the Earth, make space travel and moon landings impossible. They claim that the technology to shield astronauts from the harmful effects of this radiation does not exist.
17. The Horizon Always Rises to Eye Level: Some Flat Earth believers argue that the horizon always appears to rise to eye level, regardless of altitude, which they claim is evidence of a flat Earth. They assert that if the Earth were a sphere, the horizon would appear to drop as altitude increases.
18. Planes Should Constantly Adjust for Earth's Curvature: Flat Earth proponents often argue that if the Earth were spherical, airplanes would need to constantly adjust their altitude to account for the Earth's curvature. They claim that the fact that planes can maintain a constant altitude without continually descending is evidence of a flat Earth.
19. The Gyroscope Argument: Some Flat Earth believers argue that the behavior of gyroscopes is evidence of a flat Earth. They claim that if the Earth were a rotating sphere, a gyroscope's axis should gradually tilt as it maintains its rigidity in space.
20. The Flat Earth Maps and Distances: Flat Earth proponents often argue that flat Earth maps, such as the azimuthal equidistant projection, show accurate distances between locations, which they claim is evidence of a flat Earth.

21. The Curvature Argument: One topic often presented is that if the Earth were truly a sphere with a specific curvature (8 inches per mile), objects beyond a certain distance should disappear beyond the horizon. However, some flat Earth proponents claim that they are able to see objects or cities that should be hidden behind the Earth's curvature.

22. North Pole: Flat Earth proponents could claim that the six months of continuous daylight at the North Pole is further evidence for their model. In this view, the Sun moves in a circular path above the flat Earth, illuminating different parts of the disk at different times of the year. During the six months when the North Pole experiences continuous daylight, the Sun would be closer to the center of the flat Earth, resulting in constant illumination of the area around the North Pole.

23. Movement of Stars: They claim that the stars appear to move in perfect circles around a central point (usually the North Star, Polaris) in the night sky, which they argue is evidence for a flat Earth with the stars rotating around it.

In this model, the Earth is imagined as a flat disk, with the North Pole at the center and the stars circling around it in a dome-like structure. The stars' circular paths are attributed to their fixed positions on this celestial dome, which rotates around a stationary, flat Earth.

24. The NASA Photos: Flat Earth proponents argue that NASA's photographs of the Earth are manipulated or outright fabricated to maintain the illusion of a spherical Earth. They point to inconsistencies and anomalies in various images as evidence that these images have been tampered with or created digitally.
For instance, some Flat Earth believers question the authenticity of the "Blue Marble" image series, including the original 1972 photograph and the 2012 composite. They assert that the 2012 composite image, which was created by stitching together multiple images from the Suomi NPP satellite, contains repeated cloud patterns, suggesting that the image was manipulated. Some also claim that by adjusting the settings of the image in photo editing software, they can reveal a square around the Earth, which they believe is proof of digital manipulation.
Flat Earth proponents also criticize the consistency and quality of images of Earth from space. They argue that variations in the size and shape of continents, cloud formations, and coloration from one image to another are evidence that these images are not genuine. They believe that NASA's admission of using image processing techniques, such as stitching and enhancing images, is an admission of tampering or creating images from scratch.
What if it is flat? Why Would they lie?
  1. Maintaining authority: Scientific institutions, experts, and governments might have vested interests in preserving the status quo. Admitting that they were wrong about the Earth's shape could damage their credibility and undermine their authority, leading to a loss of trust and influence.

  2. Human significance: Believing that the Earth is a sphere and not the center of the universe might make people feel small and insignificant. This feeling of insignificance could be used to manipulate people's emotions and make them more compliant or more likely to seek solace in consumerism, entertainment, or other distractions.

  3. Concealing additional land: If the Earth were flat and surrounded by an ice wall, as some flat Earth proponents claim, there could be hidden landmasses or resources beyond this barrier. By perpetuating the spherical Earth belief, powerful entities could potentially exploit these resources without public knowledge or competition.

  4. Funneling money: Perpetuating the belief in a spherical Earth and the need for space exploration would justify the continued funding of NASA and other space agencies. By convincing the public of the importance of space exploration and the existence of a vast universe, these agencies can secure substantial budgets from governments and private sources. This funding could then be misappropriated or redirected towards other, undisclosed projects or purposes.

Here is a final point that the Flat Earth Theory cannot explain:
Lunar eclipses: During a lunar eclipse, the Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon, causing the Moon to enter Earth's shadow. This event results in a reddish glow or a darkening of the Moon. The round shadow cast on the Moon during a lunar eclipse clearly demonstrates that the Earth is spherical. If the Earth were flat, the shadow cast during a lunar eclipse would not be round but rather rectangular or irregular in shape, which is not observed.

While the Flat Earth Theory has a number of arguments and pieces of evidence that proponents believe to support their claims, the majority consensus chooses the globe model they've been shown since elementary school.

Next time: The Hollow Earth Theory -

The Hollow Earth Theory proposes that the Earth is not a solid sphere but instead contains hollow spaces or caverns within its interior. According to this theory, there are openings at the poles or at specific locations on the Earth's surface that lead to these inner chambers.

Hollow Earth proponents suggest that these inner chambers might house advanced civilizations or even an entirely separate world within the Earth. They believe that these inner regions may have their own sources of light and sustenance, allowing life to thrive. Some versions of the theory also propose that an inner sun exists at the core of the Earth, providing light and heat to the inner inhabitants.